At the end of the thirteenth century, the Kingdom of Sicily was split in two with the secession of the island.
Kingdom of Naples
(Derivative) Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Although still known as a kingdom, the southern third of the Italian pensisula, with Naples as its capital, was contested between France and Spain. Alfonso V el Magnánimo (“the Magnanimous”) of Aragon reunited the two under his crown as Alfonso I, King of Naples in 1442, ushering in the Renaissance in the south of Italy, but that lasted only until his death. His
Alfonso V “el Magnánimo”
(Wikimedia Commons) son Ferrante inherited Naples, but on his death, Charles VII of France invaded Italy, launching the Italian Wars.
Despite a brief victory, the French were soon expelled and the Aragonese back in charge. Although the French continued to try to lay claim to the region, their efforts proved more and more futile. By the time of the Treaty of Cateau–Cambrésis in 1559, France had renounced her claim, and the Kingdom of Naples remained in Spanish hands. The city of Naples grew to become one of the largest in the Europe of its day.